Provides foundational support to address youth and young adult homelessness across the country. RHYA funds three key pillars of intervention to help homeless youth: street outreach, emergency shelters for minors and transitional living programs for youth between the ages of 16 and 22. Additionally, a national communications system (National Runaway Safeline) and national training and technical assistant enter (Runaway and Homeless Youth Training and Technical Assistance Center) are created by this act.
RHYA, usually reauthorized on time, expired September 30, 2013. NN4Y seeks its immediate reauthorization and leads a national RHYA reauthorization working group of 35 organizations. RHYA has never been funded at higher than $115 million and the last specified funding level was $165 million per year and is currently authorized at, “such sums as may be necessary.” Because of the severe lack of resources only 25% of applicants receive funding, in spite of scoring 100, 99, 98 and 97 on grant applications. Also, the RHYA programs turn away large numbers of homeless youth every year:
- Runaway and Homeless Youth Act funded Basic Center Programs have turned away 14,855 youth since FY 2010 due to the lack of an available bed.
- Runaway and Homeless Youth Act funded Transitional Living Programs have turned away 24,488 youth since FY 2010 due to the lack of an available bed.
Provides states with funding to provide services to youth who are expected to age out of foster care as well as former foster care youth ages 18 to 21. Funds from the program can be used for helping with education, employment, financial management, housing, emotional support and assured connections to caring adults for older youth in foster care. Activities and programs include, but are not limited to, help with education, employment, financial management, housing, emotional support and assured connections to caring adults for older youth in foster care.
CFCIP is currently funded at a level of $140 million in mandatory funds and ETV vouchers are funded at $45 million.
Increased federal funds available to states who choose to extend assistance to foster youth up until age 21, when those youth meet certain education, training or work requirements or has a medical condition that prevents them from participating in those activities. Services can include housing assistance, vocational and college help, and counseling.
This funding goes to states and is based on claims filed by states for federal reimbursement.
The Affordable Care Act has created a stronger safety net for unaccompanied homeless youth by expanding access to health care insurance and ensuring parity for behavioral health treatment.1
Over 42 million adolescents (ages 10 to 19) live in the United States, making up roughly 14 percent of all Americans.2 About 9.8 percent of youth ages 12-17 lack health insurance,3 and 4.7 percent have no usual source of health care.4 The Affordable Care Act includes several provisions that are expected to improve access to healthcare for older adolescents and young adults. An estimated 4.2 million uninsured adolescents ages 10-19 will be eligible to obtain health care coverage under the Affordable Care Act in 2014.5
All states must cover youth up to age 19 with family incomes below 133% of the federal poverty level through the Medicaid program. Prior to the enactment of the ACA, in the vast majority of states, youth had to prove they were disabled and poor in order to access Medicaid health insurance coverage. This created a barrier for homeless youth who often lacked documentation and proper assessment of their mental health disabilities or chemical addiction. Now service providers can assist homeless youth in signing up for health insurance by merely offering documentation that the youth is living in poverty.
Furthermore, before the ACA, many health plans and issuers could remove adult children from their parents’ policies because of their age, despite their status as students or as young adults residing with their parents. The ACA requires issuers that offer dependent coverage to make the coverage available until youth reach the age of 26. Additionally, effective in 2010, the ACA prohibited insurance companies from excluding children (through age 18) from coverage based on preexisting conditions. The act also extended dependent coverage under a parent’s policy for young adults up to age 26.
The ACA requires states to maintain March 2010 eligibility levels in their Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Programs through 2019. In addition, beginning in 2014, states must provide Medicaid coverage for youth who are aging out of foster care until they reach age 26. Beginning in 2014, the ACA also requires states to conduct outreach to vulnerable and underserved populations, including unaccompanied homeless youth, and enroll eligible individuals in Medicaid and CHIP (42 U.S.C. § 1396w-3(b)(1)(F)). Additional benefits which are relevant to adolescents include:
- Habilitative services are particularly relevant for children and adolescents with developmental disorders.
- Mental health and substance use disorder services, including behavioral health treatment, are subject to federal parity requirements. Based on the 2010-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 994,000 youth ages 12-17 (4 percent) needed but did not receive treatment for alcohol use in the past year and 1,070,000 youth (4.3 percent) needed but did not receive treatment for illicit drug use in the past year.6
Administered by state and local public child welfare agencies to help provide safe and stable out-of-home care for children until the children are safely returned home, placed permanently with adoptive families or placed in other planned arrangements for permanency. The program is authorized by Title IV-E of the Social Security Act, as amended, and implemented under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 45 CFR parts 1355, 1356, and 1357.
Funding is awarded by formula as an open-ended entitlement grant and is contingent upon an approved title IV-E plan to administer or supervise the administration of the program. Funds are available for monthly maintenance payments for the daily care and supervision of eligible children; administrative costs to manage the program; training of staff and foster care providers; recruitment of foster parents and costs related to the design, implementation and operation of a state-wide data collection system.
The Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Projects was created when The Child and Family Services Improvement and Innovation Act, P.L. 112-34 was signed into law September 30, 2011. These Title IV-E waivers are for fiscal years 2012-2014 and waive certain requirements of title IV-E and IV-B of the Social Security Act. The waiver offers greater flexibility in program design and service delivery. States that want to participate in this demonstration project must apply and be approved by the Children’s Bureau at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Some states with Title IV-E waivers have used their flexibility fund prevention, independent living arrangements, and systems-level interventions.